home pageeditorial boardcurrent issueback issuessearchguidelinescontactĺëëçíéęÜ



Issue 4
(Spring 2004)






Yannis Belonis: Manolis Kalomiris and the dark side of the German Occupation and Civil War period


Manolis Kalomiris, leading music organizations and institutions of his time, managed to always have links to those in power, something which during the time of the German Occupation and the following National Division almost proved fatal for him. In this passage we shed light to the unknown parts of that period, basically through the live testimony of witnesses, who lived and cooperated with him, and of close relatives.



Irini Theodosopoulou: Imitation” by musical instruments: Imitating sound of other musical instruments and sounds of nature. Case-study conclusions; Cretan violin techniques


This paper deals with “imitation” by musical instruments of sounds of musical instruments and sounds of nature in the traditional music of Greece. Characteristic musical examples from various regions of Greece are discussed. 

The focus of the discussion is centered on the way the traditional violinists of Crete imitate the sound of “askomandura” (a type of island bagpipe), the techniques they use to achieve imitations, the specific types of tunes (“Kondylies tou La”, “Kondylies tou Mi”, and “Pidihtos” dance) and melodic phrases (“gyrismata”) utilized by various violinists when imitating the “askomandura” and causes of this process. 

Findings originated from:

1. The study and analysis of the research material the researcher collected since April of 1998, while working for the Research Program “Thalitas: The Violin Tradition in the traditional music of Crete”, under the aegis of the Institute of Mediterranean Studies (Institution of Technology and Research) [I.T.E.] and the Department of Musical Studies at the University of Athens. Supervisor researcher of the Program “Thalitas”: Amargianakis George (1938-2003), Professor of Ethnomusicology, Department of Musical Studies, University of Athens.

2. The case-study Irini Theodosopoulou conducted at the county of Siteia in Crete, in July of 2000 (interviews of 44 musicians and non-musicians of Siteia concerning, among other aspects, the phenomenon of mimesis).

3. The musicological analysis Irini Theodosopoulou carried out since 1999 about the morphology of “kondylies”.

4. The research material of the Centre of Laography of the Academy of Athens.

5. Bibliography – Discography.

References on “imitation” of sounds of nature include musical examples imitating the sound of the human sighing (the example of the violin at Sirta / Western region of Crete) and sounds of animals (dog barking, singing of birds, donkey hee-haw etc.).



Ánastasia Georgaki: The metaphysical dimension of the synthetic sung voice in the piece Mortuos Plango – vivos voco (J. Harvey, 1981)


In this article we present through an esthetic and technical approach “the dark side of the voice” by using the term “metaphysical” in order to express the sound symbolism of the electracoustic piece Mortuos Plango – vivos voco (J. Harvey, 1981). 

In the first paragraph we try to make the link between computing in music composition and sound synthesis, in order to exalt the use of the second in the accurate construction of unfamiliar timbers. Next, we try to present briefly the sound material and the skeleton of the electracoustic composition Ěortuos Plango – vivos voco through the timber transformations of the voice to bell. In the last paragraph we present the immaterial side of the voice (who is processed through sound synthesis) and its extensions on our perception.



Sophia Kompotiati: The ethnomusicologist Béla Bartók and his fieldwork in Turkey. Brief chronicle of a great mission


The Lausanne Treaty of 1922 signaled the final collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the creation of Turkish Democracy. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder and leader of Turkish Democracy, aimed to the modernization of the newly established state by adopting innovative and reformative campaigns in order to create a new state completely cut off from its Ottoman and imperial past. In this context, by believing that is necessary to create a new national music culture, that would be a combination of Western and Turkish Anatolian music, Atatürk and his supporters invited the Hungarian composer and ethnomusicologist Béla Bartók to give some lectures on the importance of ethnographic research and the systematic recording of traditional music and to go for fieldwork in South Turkey. Nobody could ever imagine that this invitation would be a great change for Bartók to complete his great last ethnographic research that would make Turkey and Turkish music famous to the west music world.



George Hatzinikos: Music in society. Musical education in Greece


This article dates back to 1987 and the contemporaneous Greek musical educational system. In the meantime, there has been an important progress at the musical education in Greece. Despite the progress though, matters concerning the lack of directness and legitimacy in the relationship between music and the audience or musicians still consider to be existing. The writer seeks the reasons of this phenomenon looking back at the Greek and European musical education and history. He finally suggests a change in the way that people concern their relationship with music. According to the writer, this change will not only be able to redefine music’s place within the educational system, but also its place within the various aspects of human life.



© 2002-2021 Polyphonia Journal