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Issue 15

(Fall 2009)






Apostolos Kostios: Music Therapy: Art in the service of science (I)


Part I of this dissertation includes three chapters. In the First Chapter, the author marks the difficulties in defining Music Therapy and the reasons that generate them, he comments on the most significant definition attempts and generally refers to epistemological problems in the field. The Second Chapter focuses on the temporal evolution of the notion of Music Therapy, from the primitive era to the contemporary. The Third Chapter examines the particularities of the Music Therapy process, owed to the particularities of its basic tool, which is, of course, music – an abstract art by nature – as well as the ways of utilizing them to achieve the normal development and integration of the person into society, the improvement or even the healing of the person’s disturbed health, the person’s smooth rehabilitation. Music Therapy and the therapy through music are two functions that accentuate music as a paramount benefit of democracy: Music from all and for all, a fundamental principle of Music Therapy.



Nikos Bubaris: Moving Sounds: a study on the circulation of music as a cultural object


The omni-presence of music in almost all aspects of everyday life raises anew the need for understanding the dynamic modes of the cultural production of music at all stages from production to distribution and consumption, in multiple spaces and times. In this context, the paper examines the conditions of music flow as a cultural object that dynamically articulate ideas, materialities, practices and experiences. The proposed three-mode model of “transmission – interconnection – transition” focuses mainly on the ways the circulation of music expresses, interacts and constitutes the changing ideological, technological, economical and cultural environments from the mid 18th century to the present.



Ioannis Fulias: Sonata forms and their theoretical evolution: 20th-century theorists (III)


The eighth part of this extensive survey of the theoretical evolution of sonata forms from 18th to 20th centuries focalises at first on Charles Rosen’s well known publications The Classical Style and Sonata Forms. In these two books, Rosen refers briefly to the earlier binary sonata type, in order to put emphasis on features that become fundamental or unnecessary in the sonata form of the late 18th-century; his theory is grounded on a harmonic basis, as reveals his advocacy of the so-called “sonata principle” and the concept of the “structural dissonance”, and also treats different sonata types – although closely interwoven with musical genres and other musical forms, as well as not without apparent weaknesses in terminology. James Hepokoski has critically reconstructed and re-evaluated some of Rosen’s questionable postulates on the resolution of “structural dissonances”, reducing the “sonata principle” effect only between exposition and recapitulation, and even exploring special treatments of secondary themes that completely abolish the aforementioned effect. The paper concludes with further accounts (by Wallace Berry, Siegmund Levarie and Ernst Levy, Carl Dahlhaus, Clemens Kühn, Wolfgang Gersthofer, Jürgen Hunkemöller, James Webster, Nicholas Cook) on the binary sonata form, concerning its tonal plan and thematic contents, the supposed evolution from the (binary) “suite form” to the (ternary) sonata form, and also criteria for distinguishing these two structural types.


Risto Pekka Pennanen: The organological development and performance practice of the Greek bouzouki (Part ÉÉ)


This article addresses to several facets of the three- and four-course bouzouki: the etymologies of the name and other relevant terminologies, the structural development of that instrument family, the sonic and spatial organisation of the bouzouki ensemble, scordaturas and their use, and the tactility of the two bouzouki types. Set in the general theoretical framework of modernisation and Westernisation, the analysis sets the bouzouki into a wider perspective than the accustomed Greek national one. The sources include commercial recordings and films as well as audiovisual field recordings. The methods of the study include philological methods, historical source criticism, iconographic analysis and tactility analysis combined with musical analysis.


Dimitris Sarris: Museum of Homemade Musical Instruments: From theory to didactic praxis


Museum of Homemade Musical Instruments was made in May 2009, as an activity of “Mathitiada” organization, in Proti Serron, Greece. In this paper, main guidelines of museum’s philosophy and its theoretical background are presented. We also discuss about terms and theoretical definitions related to museum’s musical instruments, which in Greek language we call “autoschedia” (improvised). In order to understand their presence and functions, a cultural study could be necessary. So, what a museologist has to do in the Museum of Homemade Musical Instruments? Contemporary museum-pedagogy and relationships between museum and school, also, can guide this museum to many pedagogical activities. After the museologist, an educator is the one that can utilize this museum’s abilities. Here, we discuss about these utilizations for the Museum of Homemade Musical Instruments in education and, especially, in musical education.


Minas I. Alexiadis: The forbidden music-theatre: operas and composers in the shadow of Nazism


Since the beginning of the 1930s and primarily after the take-over of Nazism in 1933, most German opera houses did not support the music-theatrical works by Krenek, Weill, Hindemith and other important composers, such as Ervin Schulhoff, Victor Ullmann, Årich Wolfgang Korngold a.o. anymore. During this particular period, many composers, mostly of Jewish heritage, suffered, have been arrested and perished in concentration camps, or have been forced directly or indirectly to leave Germany.

This article deals with the contents, the conditions of creation, production and staging of these important works, with composers such as the ones mentioned already, but also with others who proved to be most active in the broader music-theatrical field, such as Bruno Granichstädten, Paul Abraham, Wilhelm Grosz a.o. A special reference is dedicated here to the Bohemian composer Ervin Schulhoff (1894-1942). Ôhe last part of this article includes a historical description and commentaries on the life and work of Viktor Ullmann, who died in 1944 in the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp. References on all music-theatrical works by Ullmann are included and especially on his one-act opera Der Kaiser von Atlantis / The Emperor of Atlantis, which is likely the most characteristic music-theatrical work within the frame of this research field.


Christos Kolovos: Lula Mafta-Kalogera (1900-1994); fifteen years from her death


Lula Mafta, Cleo Karantinou, Koula Katsimanti, Kimon Triantafyllou, Magliveras, Spyros Motsenigos, Evangeliou, Lekkas, Ioannis P. Tzoumanis, Gyzas, Chorafas’ family, Skantzourakis, Georgios and Willy Kofino, and how many more Greek artists of, mainly, the first half of the 20th century, for whose lives we don’t know much or anything at all! Fortunately, though, we do know much more about their art through photographs and other documents from their era. They were all artists, who, despite the national disasters that victimized our people with the consequences we all know, managed −with steel, unappeased passion and enviable ethos− to leave memorable oeuvre for us.

Among the strongest presences, in the first half of the 20th century, with some breaks because of personal reasons, was Lula Mafta-Kalogera (1900-1994), a soprano from Piraeus. She was an artist out of the few, a graduate of the Piraeus’ Conservatory, the Academy of Pedagogy and the Arsakeion, as well as a distinguished graduate of the Music Academy of Vienna. After completing postgraduate studies in Cologne and Berlin she returned to Athens (1930). The fact that she was always so warmhearted and generous led her to take part, without getting paid, in important and “historical” performances, like the Greek Premiers of Mozart’s Requiem, Honegger’s King David, Mussorgsky’s Boris Godunov, Mahler’s Songs on the Death of Children and the complete song cycle of Schubert’s Die schöne Müllerin. She had performed also Greek composer’s works in World Premier, such as Ponirides, Sklavos, Levides, Maris, Varvoglis and Nezeritis. There is no doubt that Greek music and Greek composers, among with the young people she taught, should be thankful to her for the warmth and love she gave them. She had been a member of the staff of Conservatory of Athens and the one of Piraeus, and also a member of the council of the club “The Friends of Music”.

After all, it is really fair that she is considered one of the best artists who lived, worked and performed in Greece and, finally, deny Kazantzakis’s words: “The man, under his effort to become super-man, he became inhuman and stopped being Human”.


Anastasia Kakaroglou – Katy Romanou: Extracts from Guillaume André Villoteau’s De l’état actuel de l’art musical en Égypte (IV)


In this volume of Polyphonia we go on with the publication of Guillaume André Villoteau’s “De la musique grecque moderne”, i.e. the fourth chapter of his treatise De l’état actuel de l’art musical en Égypte (1826), in a Greek translation. In “Articles” 6 and 7, presented in this volume of Polyphonia, Villoteau gives in music examples his own understanding of the “composition of neumes” and of the “great hypostaseis”, as they were explained to him by Dom Gebrael, his teacher of modern Greek music, in Egypt. All music examples in our translation are photographed from Villoteau’s edition.


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